The planned preventive system of automobile repair and maintenance adopted in our country means that automobile repairs are performed according to the need, and maintenance – according to the plan. The fundamental principles of the preventive maintenance and repair system are established in the “Regulation on the maintenance and repair of the rolling stock of the automobile transport”.
Technical maintenance of motor vehicles
Maintenance includes the following types of work:
- cleaning and washing;
- other works, performed mainly without disassembly of units and removal of individual units and mechanisms from the car.
If during maintenance is not possible to verify the full serviceability of individual units or mechanisms, they should be removed from the car for diagnostics on special stands and devices.
Maintenance is divided into the following types, according to the frequency, list and labor intensity of the work performed:
- daily maintenance (TO);
- first technical service (TO-1)
- second technical service (TO-2);
- seasonal maintenance (SA).
Each type of technical maintenance (TS) includes strictly defined list of works or nomenclature of operations. These operations are divided into two parts:
- control, which is a mandatory operation;
- performing operations is performed as required.
To get complete information about the technical condition of the vehicle, a diagnostic is carried out, which is part of the technical maintenance process.
Performed daily between shifts, when the car returns from the line and includes:
- inspection and inspection work of the mechanisms and systems responsible for the safety of movement, bodywork, cab, lighting devices;
- cleaning and drying and wiping operations;
- refueling the vehicle with fuel, oil, compressed air and coolant;
- washing the vehicle on demand, depending on weather, climate and sanitary requirements, as well as the requirements for the appearance of the vehicle.
TO-1 consists of performing a full:
external technical inspection of the entire vehicle
control-diagnostic, fixing, adjusting, lubrication, electrical and fueling work with the check of the engine, steering, brakes and other mechanisms.
To diagnose the mechanisms and systems that ensure the safety of the vehicle is a set of diagnostic work (D-1), which is performed at or before the TO-1.
TO-1 is carried out periodically at set intervals on the mileage and should ensure trouble-free operation of units, mechanisms and systems of the car within the established periodicity.
In-depth diagnostics (D-2) is carried out one or two days in advance to provide information about the condition of the vehicle at the station where TO-2 will be carried out, and if a large amount of work is found, the vehicle is redirected to the current repair area.
Second technical service
TO-2 is carried out with the car taken out of operation for 1-2 days and includes the performance in the prescribed amount of fixing, adjusting, lubricating and other work, as well as checking the operation of units, mechanisms and devices in the process of operation.
As mentioned above, D-1 diagnosis is intended mainly to determine the technical condition of units, assemblies, systems of the car ensuring traffic safety. For diagnostics D-1 of mechanisms ensuring traffic safety, fast automated tools for diagnostics of brake mechanisms and steering control are required.
Before and during the D-2, the necessary preparatory work in accordance with the adopted diagnostic technology, such as: pumping tires, installing the vehicle on the test bench, connecting the sensors, warming up the engine and other units to working temperature, etc.
To diagnose the car as a whole and its components are required test benches with running drums to determine the power and economic indicators, the state of systems and units, as well as the conditions of diagnosis, as close as possible to the conditions of the car. For combined diagnostics of maintenance and repair should be used mobile and portable diagnostic tools and instruments.
Seasonal maintenance is carried out twice a year and is a preparation of the rolling stock for operation in cold and warm seasons. It is recommended to carry out separate maintenance for the rolling stock operating in the cold climate zone. For other climatic zones, the SS is combined with TO-2 with the corresponding increase in labor input of the main type of service.
Preparation of a vehicle for winter
According to the provision there are two types of repair of cars, units, assemblies:
- current repair (TR), carried out in motor transport enterprises;
- Overhaul (KR), performed at specialized enterprises.
The repair is carried out at service stations and consists in elimination of minor malfunctions and failures in operation of the vehicle. This allows you to close all the problems, according to the norm mileage before the overhaul.
Diagnosis during the current repair is carried out to identify the failure or malfunction and find the best way to fix it, for example, on the spot, with the removal of the unit or units with their complete or partial disassembly, as well as adjustments. Current repair consists of disassembly, assembly, locksmith, welding and other work, as well as replacement of parts in units (other than basic) and individual units and assemblies in the car that require current or major repairs.
In the current repair units and assemblies on the car is replaced only if the time required to repair the unit or component exceeds the time required for its replacement.
CR vehicles, units and components carried out at specialized repair enterprises, plants, workshops. It includes restoration of serviceability of cars and units until the next overhaul. Write-off of vehicles occurs at 80% of the mileage standards for new cars and units.
During the overhaul of a car or unit, it is completely disassembled into units and parts, which are then repaired or replaced. After all the parts are replaced, the units are assembled, tested and sent for car assembly. The overhaul method assumes that the car is assembled from the previously repaired units.
After an overhaul, diagnostics is performed, the purpose of which is to verify the quality of the overhaul.
During the entire service life, the vehicle usually undergoes one overhaul.